- (Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of English (Class 9 to 12 )
- (डाउनलोड) एनसीईआरटी संस्कृत ( कक्षा 11-12) के संशोधित पाठ्यक्रम
- NCERT Diploma Course in Guidance and Counselling (2015)
Posted: 19 Oct 2015 05:16 AM PDT
(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of English (Class 9 to 12 )
1. ABOUT LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE LEARNING AND MULTILINGUALITY
This syllabus has primarily been conceptualised as a broad framework for teaching languages. We do hope that different states, districts and in some cases, maybe even some blocks, adopt and adapt this framework according to their local contexts, accommodating children with diverse abilities for their own area.
All human beings use language for a variety of purposes. Even children with most diverse abilities such as visually or hearing impaired use as complex and rich a system of communication as any 'normal child' does. It is therefore not at all surprising that most people think that they know many things about language. This is indeed unfortunate. Language is not only a means of communication; it is also a medium through which most of our knowledge is acquired; it is a system that to a great extent structures the reality around us for representing it in our minds; it is a marker of our identity in a variety of ways; and finally, it is closely associated with power in society. We should also remember that we use language not only to talk to others but also to ourselves, and that indeed is a very important function of language. How else shall we clarify our thoughts if we don't learn to talk to ourselves in the first instance?
We need language to understand different content areas such as History, Physics or Mathematics. Similarly, whether we see nature or society, we see it, to a large extent, in terms of our language. It is our language which tells us whether we see just barf or both 'ice' and 'snow' or above 20 words for a similar object as the Eskimos do. Any time a community wishes to fight for a separate state, it invariably brings in the issue of its language; many, in the case of India, would make serious efforts to have their language included in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution. And as far as the relationship of language with power is concerned, we all know that when we insist on a certain kind of pronunciation or writing system as being 'correct' and 'pure' and 'standard', we are in effect saying that if you wish to gain power in society, this is what you must do. Most children learn not just one but several languages before they come to school. The number of words a child knows before she comes to school is over 5000 or so. Multilingualism is thus constitutive of our identity. Even the so-called 'monolingual' in a remote village often controls
From the point of view of the science of language, all languages including what we call 'dialects', 'tribal', 'mixed' or 'impure' languages are equal; languages thrive in each other's company even when each one has its own quality and genius. In a multilingual class, it is absolutely imperative hat every child's language is respected and becomes a part of the teaching strategies.
1.1 Language Faculty
All children learn not only the basic systems and subsystems of their language but also how to use them appropriately (i.e. they acquire not only linguistic but also communicative competence) before they are three years old. It is eminently possible to engage in a meaningful conversation with a three-year-old on any subject that falls within her cognitive domain. It therefore seems obvious that in addition to the rich and caring exposure that they receive, normal children may be born with an innate language faculty as Chomsky has argued. Even though all languages have different words for different objects and different kinds of phrases and expressions etc., we note that all have categories like Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives or either a Subject-Verb-Object (like English) or a Subject-Object-Verb (like Hindi) word order or that they will have several rules that cut across languages (see 1.2). The awareness that there is an innate Language Faculty has two important pedagogical consequences: given adequate exposure, children will acquire new languages with ease; the focus in teaching should be more on content than grammar.
1.2 Language as a Rule-governed System
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Posted: 19 Oct 2015 04:51 AM PDT
(डाउनलोड) एनसीईआरटी संस्कृत ( कक्षा 11-12) के संशोधित पाठ्यक्रम
संस्कृत विष्व की एक प्राचीनतम भाषा है। यह अधिकांष भारतीय भाषाओं की जननी एवं सम्पोषिका रही है। भारतीय संस्कृति, धर्म, दर्षन, अध्यात्म, इतिहास, पुराण, भूगोल, राजनीति एवं विज्ञान की मूल स्रोत संस्कृत भाषा आज भी भारत का गौरव एवं प्राण है तथा जीवन्त रचनात्मकता का साक्ष्य भी प्रस्तुत करती है। राष्ट्रीय भावात्मक एकता एवं अन्तर्राष्ट्रीयता की भावना के विकास में संस्कृत का योगदान विषिष्ट रहा है। विद्यार्थियों के सर्वांगीण विकास हेतु मानवीय मूल्यों की उदात्त व्याख्या कर 'वसुधैव कुटुम्बकम्' के आदर्ष की स्थापना करना संस्कृत की एक अनुपम देन है। अतः राष्ट्र की इस अमूल्य निधि को विद्यार्थियों के समक्ष प्रस्तुत करना आवष्यक है। संस्कृत को केवल एक प्राचीन भाषा मानना ही पर्याप्त नहीं है। आधुनिक संस्कृत अन्य भाषाओं की तरह भारतीय बहुभाषिकता की एक अभिन्न अंग भी है। जिस प्रकार संस्कृत अन्य भाषाओं के सीखने व बौद्धिक विकास में एक बहुभाषी कक्षा में सहायक सिद्ध होती है, ठीक उसी प्रकार संस्कृत सीखने में कक्षा में सहज उपलब्ध बहुभाषिकता का उपयोग किया जा सकता है। बहुभाषिकता के प्रति आदर एक ऐसा सषक्त दृष्टिकोण है, जिससे भाषा-षिक्षण की पूरी विधि ही बदल सकती है। श्रवण, भाषण, पठन एवं लेखन भाषा-कौषलों का विकास पाठांे पर ही आधारित होगा। यह आवष्यक है कि विद्यार्थियांे के लिए पाठ समग्र रूप मंे सार्थक हो, जिससे भाषा के सभी तत्व सहज ग्राह्य हो जायेंगे। इसी दृष्टिकोण से वरिष्ठ माध्यमिक स्तर पर (कक्षा ग्प्.ग्प्प्) ऐच्छिक विषय के रूप में संस्कृत के पठन-पाठन का प्रावधान किया गया है।
इस स्तर पर संस्कृत के पठन-पाठन के उद्देष्य निम्नांकित हैं:
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Posted: 19 Oct 2015 03:46 AM PDT
NCERT Diploma Course in Guidance and Counselling (2015)
The course aims to train in-service teachers, teacher educators, school administrators and untrained guidance personnel as counsellors/teacher counsellors to guide and counsel students in school and other related settings.
DIPLOMA COURSE IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING (DCGC)
NCERT, through the Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education (DEPFE), has been training the in-service school teachers, teacher educators, school administrators as well as untrained guidance personnel through its diploma courses for many years. In order to make the course accessible to larger numbers, this course has now been redesigned with components of both distance as well as face-to-face modes. The course is developed and offered by DEPFE, NIE, New Delhi and Regional Institutes of Education of NCERT at Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Mysore and Shillong.
Theory: The course consists of core components in guidance and counselling processes and procedures, major theories of human adjustment and career development, and their application in counselling, psychological assessment and appraisal, and use of career information in guidance and counselling practices. The content also includes counselling for special groups of students, crisis situations and other issues arising from multicultural forces, globalisation, industrialisation etc. that have implications for guidance and counselling practices.
Practical Work: The course includes intensive training in practical work integrated with the theory components which is later conducted and supervised in schools. Enrichment lectures, seminars, workshops, demonstrations, self-study and reflective sessions are also important features of the practical training. Field visits and tours are also arranged to provide candidates with the first-hand experience of working of guidance institutions and professionals.
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