Sunday, October 18, 2015

www.CBSEPORTAL.COM - : (Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of English (Class 11 to 12 )

www.CBSEPORTAL.COM - : (Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of English (Class 11 to 12 )

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(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of English (Class 11 to 12 )

Posted: 17 Oct 2015 04:15 AM PDT

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of English (Class 11 to 12 )

Introduction

English in India is no longer a language of the colonial masters. In some important domains of activity, it has become an integral part of the Indian multilingual repertoire. In a variety of ways it has enriched Indian languages, which in turn have made significant contributions to English in India and as it is used abroad. The attitudes of the contemporary Indians towards English are significantly more positive than what we for example find in the Constituent Assembly Debates of 1946-1949. English plays an important role in the domains of education, administration, business and political relations, judiciary, industry, etc. and is therefore a passport  to social mobility, higher education, and better job opportunities. In urban India, it is very common to see young people code-mixing and code-switching between English and Indian languages. It is indeed unfortunate that English has so far remained associated with the rich, elite or upper middle class. It should be the effort of the Indian educational system to reach English to every Indian child and to ensure that she/he gains a sufficiently high level of proficiency in it and not suffer discrimination for lack of it.

The teaching and learning of English today is characterised by the diversity of schools and linguistic environments, and by systemically pervasive classroom procedures of teaching a textbook for success in an examination. The emphasis should be on teaching language use in meaningful and often multilingual contexts. For the majority of our learners, what is needed is a basic or fundamental competence in the target language. We need to develop a focus in which the research on language learning is integrated with language teaching. From the research in language learning, we know that children have an innate faculty to construct grammatical systems on their own. What we need to do in the classrooms, and to the extent possible, outside them is to create sociocultural contexts that would encourage children to participate actively in understanding and creating appropriate communicative practices. It is extremely important that textbook writers and teachers realize that children learn as much outside as in the classroom, particularly in the case of language since it is there all around them all the time. Playgrounds, street hangouts, recreation centres, picnics, adventure tours etc are all important sites of language learning from a socio-cultural perspective. If these considerations inform the new textbooks, they are bound to look different. It would be largely unnecessary and futile to teach isolated grammatical items to students. Grammars would emerge from an active engagement in communicative practices. Input rich methodologies (such as the whole language, the task-based and the comprehensible input approaches) aim at exposure to the language in meaning-focused situations so as to trigger the formation of a language system by the learner.

Input-rich communicational environments are a prerequisite to language learning since languages are learnt implicitly by comprehending and communicating messages, either through listening or reading for meaning. A comprehensible input rich curriculum lays the foundation for spontaneous language growth, and different language skills develop simultaneously in communicative sociocultural contexts rather than in any linear order as reflected in the traditional LSRW approaches. The learner can receive meaningful language input that is appropriate to his/her age and knowledge of language or readiness for language skills, given the variety and range of English-learning situations in India.

There is substantial evidence available now to show that Indian English as used by fluent educated Indian speakers does not differ in any significant way from standard varieties of English in UK or USA. There is no doubt that there are significant differences at the phonological and lexical levels. But that is also true of British and American English within those countries. Indian English can be considered a distinct variety with an identity and status of its own, and should serve as a model in teaching-learning situations.

What is to be taught and how?

The goals of a language curriculum are twofold: attainment of a basic proficiency, and the development of language as an instrument for basic interpersonal communication and later for abstract thought and knowledge acquisition. One hopes that by the time a student finishes her school, she would become an autonomous learner. This argues for a language-across-the-curriculum approach that breaks down barriers between English and other languages and subject areas. At the initial stages, English may be one of the languages for learning activities designed to enhance children's awareness of their immediate surroundings. It is at this stage that the use of the languages of children may turn out to be most productive for teaching English. It is important to note that children effortlessly learn several languages if adequate comprehensible input is available in anxiety free situations. It is also important to note that simultaneous exposure to several languages does
not, as many people tend to believe, 'confuse' children. These facts would constitute significant guidelines for teaching strategies in the classroom.

Input-rich communicational environments are essential for language learning. Inputs include textbooks, learner-chosen texts, class libraries, parallel books and materials in more than one language, media support (learner magazines/newspaper columns, radio/audio cassettes), and authentic materials.

Themes/sub-themes should be in conformity with the learners' immediate environment – physical, social and cultural. These should lead to an understanding and practice of the values enshrined in the Constitution of India, including the Fundamental Rights and Duties. The various sub-themes to be included are personal relationships, the neighbourhood, the larger community, the nation, the world, etc. In addition to textual materials, various other inputs can be brought into the language classroom, which include cards, charts, advertisements, texts produced by children, brochures, pamphlets, radio, T.V. news, etc.

In the case of textbooks, it is imperative that layout and illustrations etc are treated as integral to the text rather than as mere cosmetic add-ons.

Language and Knowledge

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(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Accountancy (Class 11 to 12 )

Posted: 17 Oct 2015 04:00 AM PDT

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Accountancy (Class 11 to 12 )

Rationale

The course in 'Accountancy' is introduced at + 2 stage of Senior Secondary education, as formal commerce education is provided after first ten years of schooling.

With the fast changing economic scenario and business environment in a state of continuous flux, elementary business education along with accountancy as the language of business and as a source of financial information has carved out a place for itself at the Senior Secondary stage. Its syllabus content should give students a firm foundation in basic accounting principles and methodology and also acquaint them with the changes taking place in the presentation and analysis of accounting information, keeping in view the development of accounting standards and use of computers.

Against this background, the course puts emphasis on developing basic understanding about the nature and purpose of the accounting information and its use in the conduct of business operations. This would help to develop among students' logical reasoning, careful analysis and considered judgement.

Accounting as an information system aids in providing financial information. The emphasis at Class XI is placed on basic concepts and the process of accounting leading to the preparation of accounts for a sole proprietorship firm. Computerised accounting is becoming more and more popular with increased awareness about use of computers in business. Keeping this in view, the students are exposed compulsorily to the basic knowledge about computers and its use in accounting in the same year.

In Class XII, Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisations and Partnership Firms are to be taught as a compulsory part. Students will also be given an opportunity to understand further about Computerised Accounting System, as an optional course to Company Accounts and Analysis of Financial Statements.

Objectives

  •  To familiarise the students with accounting as an information system;
  •  To acquaint the students with basic concepts of accounting and accounting standards;
  •  To develop the skills of using accounting equation in processing business transactions;
  •  To develop an understanding about recording of business transactions and preparation of financial statements;
  •  To enable the students with accounting for reconstitution of partnership firms;
  •  To enable the students to understand and analyse the financial statements; and
  •  To familiarise students with the fundamentals of computerised system of accounting.

Course Structure

Accountancy syllabus has been divided into four-semester course at the higher secondary stage.

Each semester would be for about six months duration.

CLASS XI

Semester I: Financial Accounting-I
Semester-II: Financial Accounting-II

CLASS XII

Semester III: Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisations and Partnership Firms
Semester IV: Company Accounts and Financial Statement Analysis

CLASS XI

Semester I: Financial Accounting - I

(Total Periods 104)

Unit I: Introduction to Accounting

(Periods 12)

  •  Accounting – Meaning, Objectives, Accounting as source of information, Internal and External users of accounting information and their needs.

  •  Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information – Reliability, Relevance, Understandability and Comparability.

  •  Basic Accounting Terms – Asset, Liability, Capital, Expense, Income, Expenditure, Revenue, Debtors, Creditors, Goods, Cost, Gain, Stock, Purchase, Sales, Loss, Profit, Voucher, Discount, Transaction, Drawings.

Unit II: Theory Base of Accounting

(Periods 12)

  • Accounting Principles – Meaning and Nature.

  • Accounting Concepts: Entity, Money Measurement, Going Concern, Accounting Period, Cost Concept, Dual Aspect, Revenue Recognition (Realisation), Matching, Accrual, Full Disclosure, Consistency, Conservatism, Materiality.

  • Accounting Standards – Concept and List of Indian Accounting Standards.
  • Accounting Mechanism – Single Entry and Double Entry.
  • Bases of Accounting – Cash Basis, Accrual Basis.

Unit III: Recording of Business Transactions

(Periods 20)

  •  Voucher and Transactions: Origin of Transactions – Source documents and Vouchers, Preparation of vouchers; Accounting equation approach – Meaning and Analysis of transactions using accounting equation; Rules of debit and credit.

  •  Recording of Transactions: Books of original entry – Journal, Special purpose books:

(i) Cash book – Simple, Cashbook with bank column and Petty cashbook,
(ii) Purchases book, Sales book, Purchases returns book, Sale returns book; Ledger: Meaning, Utility, Format; Posting from journal and subsidiary books; Balancing of accounts.

  •  Bank Reconciliation Statement: Meaning, Need and Preparation, Correct cash balance.

Unit IV: Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors

(Periods 20)

  •  Trial Balance: Meaning, Objectives and Preparation.
  •  Errors: Types of Errors; Errors affecting trial balance; Errors not affecting trial balance.
  •  Detection and Rectification of Errors (one sided and two sided); uses of suspense account.

Unit V: Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves

(Periods 20)

  • Depreciation: Meaning and Need for charging depreciation, Factors affecting depreciation, Methods of depreciation — Straight line method, Written down value method (excluding change in method), Method of recording depreciation – charging to asset account, creating provision for depreciation/ accumulated depreciation account; Treatment of disposal of an asset.

  • Provisions and Reserves: Meaning, Importance, Difference between provisions and reserves, Types of reserves: Revenue reserve, Capital reserve, General reserve, Specific reserve and Secret reserve.

Unit VI: Accounting for Bills of Exchange Transactions

(Periods 20)

  • Bills of exchange and Promissory note: Definition, Features, Parties, Specimen and Distinction.
  • Important Terms: Term of Bill, Concept of Accommodation Bill, Days of grace, Date of maturity, Bill after date, Negotiation, Endorsement, Discounting of bill, Dishonour, Retirement and Renewal of a bill.

  • Accounting treatment of bill transactions.

Semester II: Financial Accounting - II

(Total Periods 104)

Unit VII: Financial Statements

(Periods 38)

  • Financial Statements: Meaning and Users.
  • Distinction between capital expenditure and revenue expenditure.
  • Trading and Profit and Loss Account: Gross profit, Operating profit, Net profit.
  • Balance Sheet: Need, Grouping, Marshalling of assets and liabilities, Vertical presentation of financial statement.

  • Adjustments in preparation of financial statements with respect to Closing stock, Outstanding expenses, Prepaid expenses, Accrued income, Income received in advance, Depreciation, Bad debts, Provision for doubtful debts, Provision for discount on debtors, Managers' commission.

  • Preparation of trading and profit and loss account and balance sheet of sole proprietorship.

Unit VIII: Accounts from Incomplete Records

(Periods 30)

  •  Incomplete Records: Meaning, Uses and Limitations.
  •  Ascertainment of profit/loss by Statement of Affairs method.
  •  Preparation of trading and profit and loss account and balance sheet.
  •  Ascertaining missing figures in Total debtors account, Total creditors account, Bill receivables,

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(डाउनलोड) एनसीईआरटी संस्कृत ( कक्षा 9-10) के संशोधित पाठ्यक्रम

Posted: 17 Oct 2015 03:45 AM PDT

(डाउनलोड) एनसीईआरटी संस्कृत ( कक्षा 9-10) के संशोधित पाठ्यक्रम

भूमिका

संस्कृत विष्व की एक प्राचीनतम भाषा है। इसका साहित्य ऋग्वेद-काल से लेकर आज तक अबाध गति से प्रवाहित है। ज्ञान-विज्ञान के विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में जितने ग्रन्थ इस भाषा में लिखे गए हैं उतने किसी अन्य प्राचीन भाषा में नहीं प्राप्त होते। अधिकांष भारतीय भाषाओं में संस्कृत शब्दांे की बहुलता है। अतः संस्कृत भाषा का ज्ञान अन्य भारतीय भाषाओं के सीखने में सहायक सिद्ध होता है। संस्कृत भाषा और साहित्य का राष्ट्रीय एकता की दृष्टि से बहुत महत्त्व है। संस्कृत साहित्य की मूल चेतना, (विविधता को बनाए रखते हुए) भारत को एक राष्ट्र के रूप में देखने की है। भारतवर्ष में क्षेत्रीय विषमताओं के होने पर भी जिन तत्त्वों ने इस देष को एक सूत्र में बाँध रखा है उनमें संस्कृत भाषा तथा इसका साहित्य प्रमुख है। संस्कृत साहित्य ने उत्तर-दक्षिण या पूर्व-पष्चिम का भेदभाव मिटाकर प्रत्येक नागरिक को भारतीय होने का स्वाभिमान प्रदान किया है। इस भाषा में भारतीय सभ्यता, धर्म, दर्षन, इतिहास, पुराण, भूगोल, राजनीति एवं विज्ञान का प्रचुर साहित्य प्रत्येक विधा में तथा समकालीन साहित्य भी विपुल मात्रा में उपलब्ध है जिसका अनुषीलन समाज के लिए अत्यन्त उपयोगी है।

संस्कृत को केवल एक प्राचीन भाषा मानना ही पर्याप्त नहीं है। आधुनिक संस्कृत अन्य भारतीय भाषाओं की तरह भारतीय बहुभाषिकता की एक अभिन्न अंग है। जिस प्रकार बहुभाषी कक्षा में अन्य भाषाओं के सीखने में संस्कृत सहायक होती है उसी प्रकार संस्कृत भाषा को सीखने में अन्य भाषाओं का सहयोग भी लिया जा सकता है। बहुभाषिकता के प्रति आदर एक ऐसा सषक्त दृष्टिकोण है, जिससे भाषा-षिक्षण की पूरी विधि ही बदल सकती है। इसी दृष्टिकोण से माध्यमिक स्तर पर (कक्षा प्ग्दृग्) संस्कृत के पठन-पाठन के लिए पाठ्यक्रम विकसित किया गया है।
 

सामान्य उद्देष्य

माध्यमिक स्तर पर संस्कृत के पठन-पाठन के निम्नलिखित उद्देष्य हैं:

  • संस्कृत भाषा का सामान्य ज्ञान कराना जिससे संस्कृत के सरलांषों को सुनकर या पढ़कर विद्यार्थी समझ सकें एवं मौखिक तथा लिखित अभिव्यक्ति कर सकें।
  • स्स्कृत साहित्य के प्रति विद्यार्थियों में अभिरुचि उत्पन्न करना।
  • संस्कृत साहित्य की प्रमुख विधाओं की प्रतिनिधि रचनाओं (प्राचीन एवं अर्वाचीन) से विद्यार्थियों का परिचय कराना।
  • विद्यार्थियों में राष्ट्रीय, सांस्कृतिक, सामाजिक एवं नैतिक मूल्यों को विकसित करना।

विषिष्ट उद्देष्य

श्रवण

  •  कक्षा में अध्यापक अथवा सहपाठी द्वारा पढ़े गए पाठ अथवा कहे गए विचारों को ध्यानपूर्वक सुनना तथा सार ग्रहण करते हुए अपेक्षित क्रिया करना।
  •  रेडियो तथा दूरदर्षन द्वारा प्रसारित संस्कृत कार्यक्रमों को ध्यानपूर्वक सुनना तथा समझना।
  •  सहपाठी तथा अध्यापक के कथनों को सुनकर प्रष्न पूछना।

वाचन (भाषण)

  •  पठित सामग्री पर पूछे गए प्रष्नों का उत्तर दे सकना।
  •  अपने विचारों को प्रकट करते समय उचित शब्दों पर बलाघात करते हुए बोल सकना।
  •  प्रष्नवाचक आदि भावों को समाहित करते हुए अपने विचारों को स्पष्टता, तथा विनम्रता के साथ प्रकट कर सकना।

पठन

  •  संस्कृत के गद्य तथा पद्य खण्डों तथा नाट्यांषों का स्पष्ट तथा शुद्ध पाठ करते हुए सारांष समझ सकना।
  •  संस्कृत वाक्यों का प्रवाह के साथ पाठ कर सकना।
  •  पाठ्यपुस्तक में प्रयुक्त छंदों (पद्यों) का लय के अनुसार सस्वर पाठ करना।

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