Friday, October 16, 2015

www.CBSEPORTAL.COM - : (Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Social Science (Class 11 to 12 )

www.CBSEPORTAL.COM - : (Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Social Science (Class 11 to 12 )

Link to CBSE X, CBSE XII, JEE-MAIN, ICSE, Papers, Downloads

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Social Science (Class 11 to 12 )

Posted: 15 Oct 2015 03:21 AM PDT

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Social Science (Class 11 to 12 )

Introduction

The revised syllabus for the Social Sciences in Classes VI-XII attempts to advance an on-going process of assisting children and young people to understand that a healthy engagement with the world must come as much from the way society takes shape and functions as from a proper sense of its material and physical foundations. From this, it is expected, a vision will evolve that the Social Sciences provide both essential skills of comprehension that are fundamental to any activity, and a means of self-understanding and fulfilment that can be diverting, exciting and challenging. The syllabus assumes that the knowledge apparatus of the child and the young person is itself complex — both given the wide range of materials that the visual and print media have drawn into country and urban life and the nature of the problems of everyday life. To negotiate the diversity and confusion and excitement the world throws up itself requires activity and insight that the Social Sciences can substantially provide. To have a firm and flexible perspective on India's past and the world from which, and in which, the country develops, sensitivity to crucial social problems is essential. The syllabus attempts to encourage such sensitivity and provide it with the ground on which it may deepen — stressing that attention should be paid to the means through which sensitivity and curiosity are aroused as much as the specific information that stimulates it.

The Social Sciences have been a part of the school curriculum before Class VI as part of the teaching of Environmental Studies. The revised EVS syllabus has attempted to draw the child's attention in Classes III-V to the broad span of time, space and the life in society, integrating this with the way in which she or he has come to see and understand the world around them.

In Classes VI-X, this process continues, but with a greater attention to specific themes and with an eye to the disciplines through which Social Science perspectives have evolved. Up to a point, the subjects that are the focus of college-level teaching — History, Geography, Political Science, and Economics — are meant to take shape in the child's imagination during these years but only in a manner where their boundaries are open to dispute, and their disciplinary quality is understated. With such intentions, syllabus-makers have been more concerned with theme and involvement rather than information. Textbook writers will be concerned to ensure that understanding does not suffer through suffocation by obsession with detail. Equally, the themes and details that are brought before the child for attention and discussion are also meant to clarify doubts and disputes that take shape in contemporary society — through an involvement of the classroom in discussions and debates via the medium of the syllabus.

With such a focus in mind, syllabus-makers for the Upper Primary and Secondary stages have sought to ensure that their course content overlaps at various levels, to strengthen understanding, and provide a foundation in detail from which natural curiosity and the capacity for investigation may evolve and develop. It is also anticipated that, in keeping with the spirit of the National Curriculum Framework the syllabus itself will promote project work that encourages the child to take stock of the overlap, to see a problem as existing at different and interconnected levels. Guides to this as well as specific instances will be provided in textbooks.

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NCERT Doctoral Fellowship - 2015

Posted: 15 Oct 2015 02:54 AM PDT

(Notification) NCERT Doctoral Fellowship - 2015

Applications are invited for the award of a maximum of 10 NCERT Doctoral Fellowships in the field of education and other disciplines directly related to education. The fellowships are intended for young aspirants to pursue doctoral work in a recognized university/research institution of their choice. Young scholars from different disciplinary perspectives will be encouraged to research in the field of education. It is to be noted that 4 out of 10 fellowships are reserved for 4 Regional Institutes of Education (RIEs), one each for Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar and Mysore .

Fellowship will be given for research pertaining to the following priority areas:

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA): This scheme was launched in March, 2009 with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality. The implementation of the scheme started from 2009-10. The academic aspect of RMSA needs to be researched, which may among other things, include -issues of implementation; current problems of secondary education vis a vis RMSA activities; barriers in achieving RMSA; universal access of secondary education; equality and social justice; curricular aspects; challenges for teachers and administrators; opportunities for students and communities; improvement in education of students of weaker section of society; role in removing gender disparity; effect of RMSA on enrolments for the children from under privileged society and the children Below Poverty Line (BPL) families; indigenous knowledge and curriculum development; Language, Science and Mathematics Education at secondary level; Social science education and its contextualization; RMSA and environment management/sustainable development in schools; issues of arts and aesthetics in secondary school; monitoring and supervision mechanism; library and laboratories in schools; organic linkages between secondary and higher education; vocationalization and secondary education; issues of adolescence and guidance and counseling at secondary level of education; sports and physical education and RMSA; role of ICT in schools and RMSA; etc.

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(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Chemistry (Class 11 to 12 )

Posted: 15 Oct 2015 02:54 AM PDT

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Chemistry (Class 11 to 12 )

Rationale

Higher Secondary Stage is the most crucial stage of school education because at this stage specialised discipline based, content oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of mostly for pursuing their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicines, engineering, technology and studying courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, at this stage, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the higher secondary stage.

National Curriculum Framework for School Education – 2005 recommends a disciplinary approach with appropriate rigour and depth with the care that syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international level. It emphasizes a coherent focus on important ideas within the discipline that are properly sequenced to optimize learning. It recommends that theoretical component of Higher Secondary Science should emphasize on problem solving methods and the awareness of historical development of key concepts of science be judiciously integrated into content. The present exercise of syllabus development in Chemistry at Higher Secondary Stage is based on this framework.

Salient features of the present syllabus are thus:

  •  Some background of Chemistry from secondary stage is assumed; however, no specific knowledge of topics in Chemistry is pre-supposed.

  •  The course is self-contained and broadly covers fundamental concepts of Chemistry.

  •  Attempt has been made to see discipline of Chemistry does not remain only the science of facts but becomes related to modern applications in the world around us.

  •  The syllabus provides logical sequencing of the 'Units' of the subject matter with proper placement of concepts with their linkages for better understanding.

  •  Emphasis has been on promoting process – skills, problem solving abilities and applications of concepts of Chemistry useful in real life situation for making learning of Chemistry more relevant, meaningful and interesting.

  •  An effort has been made on the basis of feedback, to remove repetition besides reducing the content by suitably integrating the different content areas.

  •  Practical syllabus has two components. There are core experiments to be undertaken by the students in the classroom and will be part of examination while each student will carry out one investigatory project and submit the report for the examination. With this background, the Chemistry curriculum at the higher secondary stage attempts to

  •  promote understanding of basic principles in Chemistry while retaining the excitement in Chemistry;

  •  develop an interest in students to study Chemistry as discipline;

  •  strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage and to provide firm foundation for further learning of Chemistry at tertiary level more effectively;

  •  develop positive scientific attitude, and appreciate contribution of Chemistry towards the improvement of quality of human life;

  •  develop problem solving skills and nurture curiosity, aesthetic sense and creativity;

  •  inculcate values of honesty, integrity, cooperation, concern for life and preservation of the environment;

  •  make the learner realise the interface of Chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics, Biology, Geology, etc;

  •  equip students to face challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population, whether industries and agriculture.

CHEMISTRY CLASS XI

Theory                                                                                                                                 Total Periods 180

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry                                                                             (Periods 14)

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.

Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic
theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Unit II: Structure of Atom                                                                                                     (Periods 16)

Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thompson's model and its limitations, Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties                                          (Periods 8)

Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements – atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure                                                             (Periods 16)

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids                                                                           (Periods 14)

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles' law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation, deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Unit VI: Thermodynamics                                                                                                        (Periods 16)

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(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Science (Class 9 to 10 )

Posted: 15 Oct 2015 02:49 AM PDT

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Science (Class 9 to 10 )

Rationale

The exercise of revising the syllabus for science and technology has been carried out with "Learning without burden" as a guiding light and the position papers of the National Focus Groups as points of reference. The aim is to make the syllabus an enabling document for the creation of textbooks that are interesting and challenging without being loaded with factual information. Overall, science has to be presented as a live and growing body of knowledge rather than a finished product.

Very often, syllabi – especially those in science – tend to be at once overspecified and underspecified. They are overspecified in that they attempt to enumerate items of content knowledge which could easily have been left open, e.g., in listing the families of flowering plants that are to be studied. They are underspecified because the listing of 'topics' by keywords such as 'Reflection' fails to define the intended breadth and depth of coverage. Thus there is a need to change the way in which a syllabus is presented.

The position paper on the teaching of science – supported by a large body of research on science education – recommends a pedagogy that is hands-on and inquiry-based. While this is widely accepted at the idea level, practice in India has tended to be dominated by chalk and talk methods. To make in any progress in the desired direction, some changes have to be made at the level of the syllabus. In a hands-on way of learning science, we start with things that are directly related to the child's experience, and are therefore specific. From this we progress to the general. This means that 'topics' have to be reordered to reflect this. An example is the notion of electric current. If we think in an abstract way, current consists of charges in motion, so we may feel it should be treated at a late stage, only when the child is comfortable with 'charge'. But once we adopt a hands-on approach, we see that children can easily make simple electrical circuits, and study several aspects of 'current', while postponing making the connection with 'charge'. Some indication of the activities that could go into the development of a 'topic' would make the syllabus a useful document. Importantly, there has to be adequate time for carrying out activities, followed by discussion. The learner also needs time to reflect on the classroom experience. This is possible only if the content load is reduced substantially, say by 20-25%. Children are naturally curious. Given the freedom, they often interact and experiment with things around them for extended periods. These are valuable learning experiences, which are essential for imbibing the spirit of scientific inquiry, but may not always conform to adult expectations. It is important that any programme of study give children the needed space, and not tie them down with constraints of a long list of 'topics' waiting to be 'covered'. Denying them this opportunity may amount to killing their spirit of inquiry. To repeat an oft-quoted saying: "It is better to uncover a little than to cover a lot." Our ultimate aim is to help children learn to become autonomous learners.

Themes and Format

There is general agreement that science content up to Class X should not be framed along disciplinary lines, but rather organised around themes that are potentially cross-disciplinary in nature. In the present revision exercise, it was decided that the same set of themes would be used, right from Class VI to Class X. The themes finally chosen are: Food; Materials; The world of the living; How things work; Moving things; People and ideas; Natural phenomena and Natural resources. While these run all through, in the higher classes there is a consolidation of content which leads to some themes being absent, e.g. Food from Class X.

 The themes are largely self-explanatory and close to those adopted in the 2000 syllabus for Classes VI-VIII; nevertheless, some comments may be useful. In the primary classes, the 'science' content appears as part of EVS, and the themes are largely based on the children's immediate surroundings and needs: Food, Water, Shelter etc. In order to maintain some continuity between Classes V and VI, these should naturally continue into the seven themes listed above. For example, the Water theme evolves into Natural resources (in which water continues to be a sub theme) as the child's horizon gradually expands. Similarly, Shelter evolves into Habitat, which is subsumed in The world of the living. Such considerations also suggest how the content under specific themes could be structured. Thus clothing, a basic human need, forms the starting point for the study of Materials. It will be noted that this yields a structure which is different from that based on disciplinary considerations, in which materials are viewed purely from the perspective of chemistry, rather than from the viewpoint of the child. Our attempt to put ourselves in the place of the child leads to 'motion', 'transport' and 'communication' being treated together as parts of a single theme: Moving things, people and ideas. More generally, the choice of themes – and sub themes – reflects the thrust towards weakening disciplinary boundaries that is one of the central concerns of NCF-2005.

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(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Science (Class 6 to 8 )

Posted: 15 Oct 2015 02:41 AM PDT

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Science (Class 6 to 8 )

Introduction

The exercise of revising the syllabus for Science – or Science and Technology – has been carried out with "Learning without burden" as a guiding light and the position papers of the National Focus Groups as points of reference. The aim is to make the syllabus an enabling document for the creation of textbooks that are interesting and challenging without being loaded with factual information. Overall, science has to be presented as a live and growing body of knowledge rather than a finished product.

Very often, syllabi – especially those in Science – tend to be at once overspecified and underspecified. They are overspecified in that they attempt to enumerate items of content knowledge which could easily have been left open, e.g., in listing the families of flowering plants that are to be studied. They are underspecified because the listing of 'topics' by keywords such as 'Reflection' fails to define the intended breadth and depth of coverage. Thus there is a need to change the way in which a syllabus is presented.

The position paper on the Teaching of Science – supported by a large body of research on Science Education – recommends a pedagogy that is hands-on and inquiry-based. While this is widely accepted at the idea level, practice in India has tended to be dominated by chalk and talk methods. To make in any progress in the desired direction, some changes have to be made at the level of the syllabus. In a hands-on way of learning science, we start with things that are directly related to the child's experience, and are therefore specific. From this we progress to the general.

This means that 'topics' have to be reordered to reflect this. An example is the notion of electric current. If we think in an abstract way, current consists of charges in motion, so we may feel it should treated at a late stage, only when the child is comfortable with 'charge'. But once we adopt a hands-on approach, we see that children can easily make simple electrical circuits, and study several aspects of 'current', while postponing making the connection with 'charge'.

Some indication of the activities that could go into the development of a 'topic' would make the syllabus a useful document. Importantly, there has to be adequate time for carrying out activities, followed by discussion. The learner also needs time to reflect on the classroom experience. This is possible only if the content load is reduced substantially, say by 20-25%.

Children are naturally curious. Given the freedom, they often interact and experiment with things around them for extended periods. These are valuable learning experiences, which are essential for imbibing the spirit of scientific inquiry, but may not always conform to adult expectations. It is important that any programe of study give children the needed space, and not tie them down with constraints of a long list of 'topics' waiting to be 'covered'. Denying them this opportunity may amount to killing their spirit of inquiry. To repeat an oft-quoted saying: "It is better to uncover a little than to cover a lot." Our ultimate aim is to help children learn to become autonomous learners.

Themes and Format

There is general agreement that Science content up to Class X should not be framed along disciplinary lines, but rather organised around themes that are potentially cross-disciplinary in nature. In the present revision exercise, it was decided that the same set of themes would be used, right from Class VI to Class X. The themes finally chosen are: Food, Materials, The World of the Living, How Things Work, Moving Things, People and Ideas, Natural Phenomena and Natural Resources. While these run all through, in the higher classes there is a consolidation of content which leads to some themes being absent, e.g., Food from Class X.

The themes are largely self-explanatory and close to those adopted in the 2000 syllabus for Classes VI-VIII; nevertheless, some comments may be useful. In the primary classes, the 'science' content appears as part of EVS, and the themes are largely based on the children's immediate surroundings and needs: Food, Water, Shelter etc. In order to maintain some continuity between Classes V and VI, these should naturally continue into the seven themes listed above. For example, the Water theme evolves into Natural Resources (in which water continues to be a sub theme) as the child's horizon gradually expands. Similarly, Shelter evolves into Habitat, which is subsumed in The World of the Living. Such considerations also suggest how the content under specific themes could be structured. Thus clothing, a basic human need, forms the starting point for the study of Materials. It will be noted that this yields a structure which is different from that based on disciplinary considerations, in which materials are viewed purely from the perspective of chemistry, rather than from the viewpoint of the child. Our attempt to put ourselves in the place of the child leads to 'motion', 'transport' and 'communication' being treated together as parts of a single theme: Moving things, people and ideas. More generally, the choice of themes – and sub themes – reflects the thrust towards weakening disciplinary boundaries that is one of the central concerns of NCF 2005. The format of the syllabus has been evolved to address the underspecification mentioned

above. Instead of merely listing 'topics', the syllabus is presented in four columns: Questions, Key concepts, Resources and Activities/Processes.

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